History Of The Cellular Phones

In today’s technologically advanced world, just about everyone has a cellular phone. Adults, teenagers, and even children carry around portable models of the telephone. What is really hard to believe is that just 15 years ago seeing a cellular phone was quite rare.

The history of the cellular phone is very interesting and shows just how the portable wonder became what it is today.

The history of the cell phone begins with a skilled, analytical chemist named Michael Farady. In 1843 he began exhaustive research to find of space could conduct electricity. He told of his findings, and these advances of 19 th century science and technology have had an immeasurable effect on the development of today’s cellular phone.

In 1865 a dentist by the name of Dr. Mahlon Loomis became what is thought to be the first person who was able to communicate wirelessly through the atmosphere. Between the dates of 1866 and 1873 he was able to transmit telegraphic messages 18 miles between the tops of the Cohocton and Beorse Deer Mountains in Virginia.

Loomis developed a way of transmitting and receiving messages by using Earth’s atmosphere as a conductor. He launched kites, enclosed with copper screens, that were linked to the ground with copper wires. He was awarded a $50,000 research grant from Congress to continue his studies.

Fast forward to 1973 when Dr. Martin Cooper became who is thought to be the inventor of the first portable handset. A former general manager fro the systems division of Motorola, Dr. Cooper was also the first person to make a call using a portable cell phone.

He set up a base station in New York with the first working prototype of a cell phone, called the Motorola Dyna-Tac. Both he and Motorola took this technology to New York to show the public.

In 1977 cell phone went public and public testing began. Chicago was the home for the first trials with 2,000 people. Later trials appeared in Washington, D.C. and Baltimore. It spread to Japan in 1979.

Typical technologies changed in 1988 when the Cellular Technology Industry Association, or CTIA, was formed to lay out practical goals for cell phone providers. Included was research for new applications of development.

In 1991 the Telecommunications Industry Association set a new standard with the creation of the TDMA Interim Standard 54.

The history of the cell phone has had quite a long journey. Even though there was a great demand for cell phones, it took a total of 37 years for them to become commercially accessible in the United States.

It’s hard to believe that, since the cell phone has only become popular over the past couple of decades, wireless service was actually invented almost 50 years ago.

According to the CTIA, there are more than 60 million people who own cell phones. Just 25 years ago the cellular business had a $3 million market, while today it has grown to be an industry worth close to $30 billion per year.


European BPOs seen having lot more gravy

Offshoring of BPO services isn’t happening from the United States alone, but I guess you knew that already. The European Union, too, offshores a substantial portion of its work, to India and other countries, and this only set to grow in the next five years, according to a new "Trends" report by Forrester Research, Inc. Who would have thought this possible in "old" Europe?

The report by Somoko Takahashi says Forrester expects a CAGR of 11.5 per cent in BPO offshoring from the 25-member EU, plus Norway and Switzerland in the next five years. The forecast by Forrester Research, an independent market and technology research firm, tracks six service categories: human resources BPO, financial services back-offices BPO, procurement BPO, finance and accounting BPO, customer care BPO, and "other" BPO.

"Total spending will rise from euro 11 billion in 2006 to euro 18.9 billion in 2011. Relative to their size, firms in the United Kingdom and The Netherlands will spend the most," Ms. Takahashi says.

A third of the total European BPO spending in 2006 will go to BPO. "This service type has the biggest spending share both now and up to 2011. U.K. firms lead, spending euro 1.4 billion in 2006, followed by

German and French firms at euro 587 million, respectively. Demand for HR BPO has a visible impact on service providers. Arinso, for example, reported seeing a doubling of the number of client employees that it serves in one year—much earlier than expected," she says.

The Forrester report says spending on finance and accounting BPO has the highest CAGR of all BPO services, at 16.4 per cent.

"From 2006 to 2007, nearly all countries will raise their expenditures on F&A BPO—with growth rates ranging from eight per cent to 10 per cent. In the most outsourcing-experienced countries like The Netherlands and the United Kingdom, F&A BPO spending will seize about 13 per cent of the

total BPO spending in 2011. But other European countries will not match this growth in share of spending," the report says.

Similarly, spending on financial services back-office BPO will increase at a CAGR of 10.4 per cent from 2006-2011.

"Ongoing automation and standardisation within the financial services industry means firms here are likely to outsource the processing and administration that underpins financial services and insurance products.

Although use of external services is quite common across Europe, uptake is biased towards Western Europe - with the most IT-advanced countries like The Netherlands, the Nordics, and the U.K. all expected to have a steeper increase in spending than the others," Ms Takahashi says.


Now, a potato sans calories

Scientists in Britain have developed potatoes with less carbohydrate and fewer calories but with all the other nutritional values of the regular spud.British company Naturally Best that developed Vivaldi after nine years of research say their potato could a fulfil a dieters’ dream, reports the online edition of BBC News.

According to tests by the Grimsby-based Allied Laboratory Services, the new potato has 26 per cent less carbohydrate and 33 per cent fewer calories. The potato, which has normal levels of vitamin C and other nutrients, was originally developed from seed for a creamy taste.The popularity of the low GI (glycaemic index) diet has recently prompted a shift in the way spuds are perceived. Low GI diets involve replacing high GI foods, such as potatoes and white bread, with low GI options such as apples, pasta and beans. The potato will be available in Sainsbury’s stores.

"This great-tasting, versatile potato is the perfect solution for those of us who like to watch what we eat — and they taste just as good for those who don’t," reported the online edition of the London Daily Mail quoting John Maylam of Sainsbury’s grocery store chain.


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